Citation Examples (MLA Style)

The purpose of a bibliography or works cited list is to give credit to an author and to help the reader find the material that was used in the report. The following examples are for the types of resources most commonly used in research at the Palo Alto Middle Schools.

Begin each entry flush with the left margin; if an entry runs more than one line, indent the subsequent line or lines one-half inch (or five spaces) from the left margin.  This format is sometimes called hanging indention.

Alphabetize entries by author's last name, or if none, by first significant word in title.

NOTE: On some computers, the formatting of the following examples does not look as it should. If you are experiencing this problem, or if you would like a printable version of this information, look at the PDF format of the citation examples.

Printed Resources

Book with One Author
     AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstnameBook Title.  Publication City: Publishing Company, Year Published.

     Maculay, DavidThe New Way Things WorkBoston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998.

Book with Two or Three Authors
     Author1Lastname, Author1Firstname, and Author2Firstname Author2Lastname.  Book Title
         Publication City: Publishing Company, Year Published.

     Wilkinson, Philip and Michael PollardThe Master Builders. New York: Chelsea House, 1994.

Book with One, Two or Three Editors
     Editor1Lastname, Editor1Firstname, and Editor2Firstname Editor2Lastname, eds.  Book Title
          Publication City: Publishing Company, Year Published. (*Note: "eds." becomes "ed." if only one editor.)

     Feldman, Paula R., ed.  British Women Poets of the Romantic EraBaltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.

Book with More than Three Authors (or editors)
     Author1Lastname, Author1Firstname, et al.  Book Title. Publication City: Publishing Company, Year
          Published.

     Brandes, Kathleen, et al., eds.  Vanishing SpeciesNew York: Time-Life Books, 1976.

Single Work from an Anthology
     AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname.  " Title of Work.Anthology Title.  Ed. EditorFirstname EditorLastname
          Publication City: Publishing Company, Year PublishedPage numbers inclusive.

     Tracy, Robert. "Traffic."  Forever Sisters.  Ed. Claudia O’Keefe.  New York: Pocket Books, 1999
          160-174.

Journal Article
     AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname.  "Article Title."  Journal Title  Issue Volume (Year of Publication):
          Page Numbers Inclusive.

     Knuth, Anne.  "Drawing Connections."  School Library Journal  48 (2002): 50-53.

Magazine Article (if no author is listed, begin with article title)
     AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname.  "Article Title."  Magazine Title  Date Month Year:  Page Numbers
           Inclusive.

     Kelly, Niall.  "The Man Who Built the White House--Twice."  American History  Dec. 2000:  46-54.

Newspaper Article (if no author is listed, begin with article title)
     AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname.  "Article Title."  Newspaper Name  Date Month Year,
          Special Edition if applicable:  section and page(s).

     Kavanaugh, Jennifer.  "Drawing Pictures of the Future."  Palo Alto Weekly  6 Dec. 2000: 7.

Encyclopedia Article (if no author is listed, begin with article title)
     AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname.  "Article Title."  Encyclopedia Name. Year Published  ed.

     Weishampel, David B.  "Dinosaur."  The World Book Encyclopedia.  2000 ed.

Pamphlet
     Same as book.

Interview
     IntervieweeLastname, IntervieweeFirstname.  Type of Interview such as personal interview or phone
           interview or E-mail interview.  Date of interview dd Mmm. yyyy.

     Schiff, Adam.  E-mail interview.  24 Oct. 2002.         

Online Resources

Website, Professional or Personal (if no author is listed, begin with page title)
     AuthorLastname, Author FirstnamePage title.  Date Published or revised Mmm. yyyy if known.  
          
Organization associated with the site (if given).   Date retrieved dd Mmm. yyyy  <URL>.

     Taylor, JenniferAncient Greek Civilizations1999.   eMuseum Minnesota State University Mankato.  
          7 Feb. 2003 <http://emuseum.mankato.msus.edu/prehistory/aegean/>.

Article from an Online Database (Such as SIRS)*
     AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname.  "Article Title."  Original Source, such as newspaper or magazine
            Date Published Mmm. yyyy: page numbers inclusiveDatabase used. Date Retrieved dd Mmm. yyyy <URL>.

     Maddren, Gerry.  "Against All Odds."  Cricket  Feb. 1998: 21-23SIRS Discoverer.  24 Nov. 2003
           <http://www.sirs.com/>.*
*Abbreviated MLA form acceptable for middle school students in Palo Alto Unified School District

Newspaper or Magazine Article from the Internet (if no author is listed, begin with article title)
     AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname.  "Article Title."  Newspaper or Magazine Title  Date
          Published dd Mmm. yyyyDate Retrieved dd Mmm. yyyy <URL>.

     Tedeschi, Bob.  "Pet Supplies Find Sales on Internet."  New York Times on the Web  28 Oct. 2002.
           18 Mar. 2007 <http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/28/technology/28ECOM. html>.

Encyclopedia Article from the Internet (if no author is listed, begin with article title)
     AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname.  "Article Title."  Encyclopedia Title.  Date Published (if known)
           Date Retrieved dd Mmm. yyyy <URL>.

     Beasley, Maurine H."Roosevelt, Eleanor."  World Book Online Reference Center24 Nov. 2003
          <http://www.worldbookonline.com>.

Article from an Online Subscription Service (Such as Gale or SIRS)
     AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname.  "Article Title."  Original Source, such as newspaper or magazine 
           Date Published Mmm. yyyy if known: page numbers  inclusive.  Database usedDate Retrieved
           dd Mmm. yyyy <URL>.

    Maddren, Gerry.  "Against All Odds."  Cricket  Feb. 1998:21-23.   SIRS Discoverer.  6 Feb. 2003
          <http://www.sirs.com/>.*
*Abbreviated MLA form acceptable for middle school students in Palo Alto Unified School District

Image from the Internet (if no artist is listed, begin with "Description")
     ArtistLastname, Artist Firstname.  "Description or title of image."  Date of image (if known).  Online image.
          Title of Web siteDate Retrieved dd Mmm. yyyy <URL>.

     Smith, Greg.  "Rhesus Monkeys in the Zoo."  Online image.  Monkey Picture Gallery.  3 May 2005
          <http://monkeys.online.org/rhesus.jpg>.

If you need to know how to cite a type of resource that is not listed below, or if your teacher would like you to use a format other than MLA, please ask your teacher or librarian for assistance, or see the online resources on the Palo Alto Middle School Libraries Research Center–Citation and Bibliography Help: http://staff.pausd.org/~middlelibrary/bibliohelp.html

Information is based on MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (2006) by Joseph Gibaldi.

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updated 2-5-09
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